Primary Manuscript Sources

Registra Avenionensia ms 250, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Registra Avenionensia vol 257, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Registra Avenionensia vol. 260, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Registra Avenionensia ms 291, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Registra Supplicationum, vol 70, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Plaoul's name mentioned on f. 56r

Registra Supplicationum, vol. 74, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Plaoul's name mentioned on f. 158r

Registra Supplicationum, vol. 75, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Plaoul's name mentioned on f. 89v

BnF ms Lat 5657-A, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Diarium Bibliothecae Sorbonae, Mazarine, ms. 3323, Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine

Primary Printed Sources

Baye, Nicolas de, Journal de Nicolas de Baye, 1885

Bellaguet, Louis, Chronique du religieux de Saint-Denys: contenant lé règne de Charles VI., de 1380 à 1422, 1840

As the subtitle makes clear, this is the second volume in a collection of documents on the history of France. Volume two covers the reign of Charles the VI, from 1380-1422

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Bellaguet, Louis, Chronique du religieux de Saint-Denys: contenant lé règne de Charles VI., de 1380 à 1422, 1841

As the subtitle makes clear, this is the third volume in a collection of documents on the history of France. Volume three covers the reign of Charles the VI, from 1380-1422

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Bellaguet, Louis, Chronique du religieux de Saint-Denys: contenant lé règne de Charles VI., de 1380 à 1422, 1842

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As the subtitle makes clear, this is the fourth volume in a collection of documents on the history of France. Volume four covers the reign of Charles the VI, from 1380-1422

Bulaeus, Caesar Egassius, Historia Universitatis Parisiensis Ipsius Fundationem, Nationes, Facultates, Magistratus, Decreta, Censuras & Ludicia in negotiis fidei, Privilegia, Comitia, Legationes, Reformationes, 1670

Plaoul is mentioned on p. 133, 141, 189, 191, 192

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Chastenet, Louis Bourgeois du, Nouvelle Histoire du Concile de Constance, Paris, 1718

Denifle, Henricus and Franz Ehrle, Archiv für Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, 1892

Denifle, Henricus, Chartularium Universitatis parisiensis, 1894

This is the third volume of a collection of records pertaining to the history of the university of Paris

Denifle, Henricus, Chartularium Universitatis parisiensis, Paris, 1897

Ehrle, Franz, "Ein Bericht über das bisher unbekannte zweite Pariser Concil vom August 1396," in Archiv für Literatur-und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1892), 193-224

Ehrle, Franz, "Neue Materialien zur Geschichte Petrus von Luna (Benedicts XIII)," in Archiv für Literatur- und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, eds. Franz Ehrle and Henricus Denifle, (, 1892), 139-308

Finke, H., Acta Concilii Constanciensis: 3. Die drei Päpste und das Konzil; Schriften zur Papstwahl, Munster, 1896

Froissart, Jean, Oeuvres de Froissart: Chroniques. 1397-1400, 1872

Hardt, Hermann von der, Res concilii oecumenici Constantiensis: de universali ecclesiasticae disciplinae reformatione, 1697

Plaoul is mentioned in Hardt's synopsis of the 13th session of the Council of Pisa, in column 132. This is menteioned by Figueiredo, "tentativa theologica"

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Lettenhove, Joseph Bruno Marie Constantin Kervyn de, Chroniques relatives à l'histoire de la Belgique....: (Textes latins). Chronique des religieux des Dunes, Jean Brandon, Gilles de Roye, Adrien de But, 1870

Mansi, Gian Domenico, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, 1784

This is volume 26 of a very large work on Church Councils. Volume 26 covers the years 1344 to 1409.

Plaoul is named frequently; cf col. 875, 895, 1124 (regarding 13th session of council of Pisa), 1247

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Mansi, Giovanni Domenico, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova, Et Amplissima Collectio: Ab anno MCCCCIX usque ad annum MCCCCXVIII., 1784

This is volume 27 of a very large work on Church Councils. Volume 27 covers the years 1409 to 1418.

Millet (1981) cites this as a source that Plaoul attended the Council of Pisa.

pdf avialable here:

Plaoul is mentioned in column 341

Martène, Edmond, Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum historicorum, dogmaticorum, moralium, amplissima collectio, Paris, 1733

Monstrelet, Enguerrand de, La chronique d'Enguerran de Monstrelet: en deux livres, avec pièces justificatives, 1857

This is an edition, edited by Douët d'Arcq and published in 1857. And earlier edition (1826) edited by Buchon also appears to exist.

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Toepke, Die matrikel der Universitat Heidelberg, 1884

Vielliard, Jeanne and Marie-Henriett Jullien de Pommerol, Le Registre de prêt de la bibliothèque du Collège de Sorbonne (1402-1536) = Diarium Bibliothecae Sorbonae : Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine, ms. 3323, Paris, 2000

This text is an edition of the circulation registry for the Library at the Sorbonne from the years 1402-1536

Plaoul is mentioned on pp. 32, 46, 47n7, 48, 50 194-195, 432 (Entry 133, n. 4 and n. 13), 469 (Entry 127, n. 10), 483 (Entry 134, n. 19), 484 (Entry 135, n. 4), 568, 620, 667-668

Secondary Sources

, , The power of the Popes: or, an historical essay on their temporal dominion, the abuse of their spiritual authority, and the wars they have declared against sovereigns; containing very extraordinary documents of the Roman Court before published, 1838

Texts seems to be a translation. Author could be Richard T. P. Pope Translator unclear -- Probably someone with the initials R.T.H.

Peter Plaoul is mentioned as Canon of Notre Dame and quoted on p. 173. Difficult to understand where the authority is quoting from, but it is generally anti-papal in nature, asserting that the Kings of France have the right to put "away schismatics and heretics" "The people can err" said he [Plaoul], "can sin: the church is so full of charity, that she cannot err; she cannot go astray, nor commit sin" Closest citation/indication of source comes on p. 163 and suggests that the text is from Paris council in 1406 ... "Six theologians were directed to lay open the griefs of the nation against pope Benedict, and six others to plead for him." Presumably, Plaoul was one of the six in the former group. (Index calls this section from 163-179, "Extracts from the Discussions of the National Council of France in 1406" Text then seems to report the arguments of each side. First, Pierre-aux Boeuf, who spoke against the Pontiff. Second, John Petit Third Simon de Cramaud, against the pope[?] Fourth William Fillastre, FOR the pope Fifth Archbishop of Tours, for the pope Sixth, Peter d'Ailly, for the pope[??] Seventh, Peter Regis or Le Roi, against the pope (p. 171) Eighth, Peter Plaoul, against the pope (p. 173) Ninth, William Fillastre, is permitted to speak a second time (p. 174) Tenth, Simon Cramaud, speaks a second time (p. 175) Six conclusions of university listed (p. 177-178) (?source?) A couple of possible citations are mentioned on p. 180 "Extracted from the Parliamentary Registers"

Bernstein, A. E, Pierre d'Ailly and the Blanchard affair: University and chancellor of Paris at the beginning of the Great Schism, Leiden, 1978

This book describes the events of the so called Blanchard affair that took place at Paris in the 1380s. Peter Plaoul, who worked as sub-chancellor under Blanchard is discussed to the degree that he was involved in the affair.

Plaoul is mentioned on pp. 72, 75, a second time on 75, 83, 85, 87, 88, 91, 119n12, 183

Coville, Alfred, Jean Petit: la question du tyrannicide au commencement du XVe siècle, 1932

Plaoul is mentioned on 5, 44, 49 50, 57, 72, p. 73, 598.

There is a 1978 reprint of this book that is more search able on google books than the 1932 version:

Google Books Link:

Eubel, Konrad, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi: sive Summorum pontificum, S.R.E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series ab anno 1198 usque ad annum [1605] perducta e documentis tabularii praesertim Vaticani collecta, digesta, 1913

Figueiredo, António Pereira de, Tentativa theologica: Episcopal rights and ultramontane usurpations, 1847

Plaoul's Speech at Pisa, in the 13th session, is mentioned on p. 158. His speech generally seems to be cited as an example of the defense of the authority of the council over the pope. Cites Hardt, tomb. II, p. 29 See this book - discussion seems to be review of Langensteins "Consilium Pacis de unione Ecclesiae -- I can't find any mention of Plaoul on p. 29 But Plaoul is mentioned in Hardt's Synopsis of the 13th session, in column 132

Gane, Robert, Le Chapitre de Notre-Dame de Paris au XIVe siècle: étude sociale d'un groupe canonial, 1999

Plaoul mentioned on at least pp. 129, 210, 211, 368, 416

Glorieux, P., "L'année universitaire 1392–1393 à la Sorbonne à travers les notes d'un étudiant," Revue des sciences religieuses, 19 (1939), 429-482

Goddard, Eric D., "The Myth of Parisian Scholar's Opposition to the System of Papal Provisions (1378-1418)," in , ed. Feingold, (Oxford, 2009), 1-35

Gorochov, Nathalie, Le collège de Navarre de sa fondation (1305) au début du XVe siècle (1418): histoire de l'institution, de sa vie intellectuelle et de son recrutement., Paris, 1997

Plaoul's name is menteiond on pp. 411, 469, 538, 539, 699. He is name also appears in a quotation on p. 532 in a quotation attributed to Froissart, Chroniques IV, p. 36

Guenée, B., Between church and state: the lives of four French prelates in the late Middle Ages, Chicago, 1991

Plaoul is mentioned on pp. 156 (regarding the Blanchard affair), 165, 190 (speech at Third French Assembly), 193, 202-3, 205 (speech at Fourth French Assembly), 207, p. 209 (on 1407 embassy), 211 (on 1407 embassy), p. 223 (at the council of Pisa), and 240 (as bishop of Senlis)

Haller, Johannes, Papsttum und Kirchenreform: Vier Kapitel zur Geschichte des ausgehenden Mittelalters, 1903

Kaminsky (1983), p. 49n66 notes that Haller discusses Plaoul alongside d'Ailly and Guillaume Filastre as examples of prelates and professors guilty of opportunism.

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Hobbins, Daniel, "The Schoolman as Public Intellectual: Jean Gerson and the Late Medieval Tract," The American Historical Review, 108 (2003), 1308-1337

Hobbins discusses Peter Plaoul's commentary in this paper. However, this paper precedes his book and much of the material is re-used in his book. My impression is that he gets most of his information from Glorieux - not from the extant manuscripts.

Hobbins, Daniel, Authorship and Publicity Before Print: Jean Gerson and the Transformation of Late Medieval Learning, Philadelphia, 2009

Contains info about Peter Plaoul

Kaluza, Zenon, "Les débuts de l'Albertisme tardif (Paris et Cologne)," in Albertus Magnus und der Albertismus, eds. Maarten Hoenen and Alain de Libera, (Leiden, 1995), 207-295

Discusses Plaoul on p. 219, perhaps elsewhere

Kaminsky, Howard, Simon De Cramaud and the Great Schism, 1984

Plaoul is mentioned on p. 117n, 164f, 216, 221, 265f, 279

Lenfant, Jacques, The History of the Council of Constance, 1730

Plaoul mentioned on p. 176 in reference to his speech at the council of Pisa. Reference is made to Plaoul's argument that "the Church represented by the General Council is above the Pope" Sources state in the margin as: "In 1409 Act. Conc. Pasan. Ap Ruber, Hist-Cene T. II, p. 93. V, d. Hardt T. II, p. 132 Maim Trait. Hist. of the Church of Rome, p. 184, 185, Hist. of the Council of Pisa, Part I., p. 276"

This is a translation work published in 1730. Presumably there is a French version of this published prior to 1730.

Maier, A., "Zu einigen Sentenzenkommentaren des XIV Jahrunderts," Archivum franciscanum historicum, 51 (1958), 405-409

Meliado, Mario and Silvia Negri, "Neues zum Pariser Albertismus des Fruhen 15. Jahrhunderts. Der Magister Lambertus de Monte und die Handschrift Brussel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, ms. 760," Bulletin de Philosophie Médiévale, 53 (2011), 349-384

This article mentions Plaoul and the Plaoul Edition.

Meyjes, Guillaume H. M. Posthumus, Jean Gerson, Apostle of Unity: His Church Politics and Ecclesiology, 1999

Plaoul discussed on p. 56, 65-67, 119 (here Plaoul is mentioned as part of envoy sent to Rome to urge Innocent to resign), p. 123, p. 126-127, 132.

Millet, Hélène, "Les pères du Concile de Pise (1409) : édition d'une nouvelle liste," Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes, 93 (1981), 713-790

Millet, Hélène, "Pierre Plaoul (1353-1415): une grande figure de l'université de Paris éclipsée par Gerson," in Itineraires du Savoir de l'Italie a la Scandinavie (Xe-XVI siecle): Etudes offertes a Elisabeth Mornet, (Paris, 2009), 179-200

This article length biography is the most extensive account of Plaoul's life that we have to date.

Ornato, Ezio, Jean Muret et ses amis: Nicolas de Clamanges et Jean de Montreuil, 1969

Rashdall, Hastings, The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages: Salerno. Bologna. Paris, 1895

Plaoul Discussed on p. 548n4 and p. 551. On p. 548, Plaoul's name comes up as a member of a "Left-wing" contingent of "Parisian Reformers" who are more radical than the more moderate positions of d'Ailly, Clemangis, and Gerson. Note 4 then states, "Peter Plaoul, for instance, in 1406 contended 'Dioeesim Romanam non aliter esse Dioecesim quam Parisiensem et eum qui Episcopatum obtinet Romanum, toti ecclesiae presidere.' and that the King could summon Councils 'in negotiis etima fidei.' (Bulaeus, V, p. 132). Sentiment seems similar to the sentiment reported in Lenfant and in the 1838 description of the same speech. p. 551, cites Plaoul as an example of clerics involved in scandal to prove the following judgment: "The conciliar movement was at bottom a merely clerical movement, the outcome of no deep convictions supported by non widely-spread religious fervour, entirely withouth root in popular sympathy. Nor were even its leaders (with the exception of Gerson and a very few others) actuated by any passionate zeal for those objects for which the most part at best respectable ecclesiastical politicians and pamphleteers, who had little or non regard for the spiritual destitution of the people. D'Ailly for instance hld more than fourteen benefices, and Peter Plaoul was accused of scandalous corruption in the University Examinations." (The citation for Plaoul's corruptions is Chartularium T. III, n. 1511)

Sainte-Marthe, Denis ¬de, Gallia Christiana: In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa, Qua Series Et Historia Archiepiscoporum, Episcoporum Et Abbatum Franciae Vicinarumque Ditionum ab origine Ecclesiarum ab nostra tempora deducitur, & probatur ex authenticis Instrumentis ad calcem appositis. De provincia Remensi, ejusque suffraganeis Ambianensi, Silvanectensi & Boloniensi ecclesiis, ubi instrumenta omnia ad calcem colliguntur : [nebst:] Instrumenta ad tomum 9 ... quae pertinent ad ecclesiam Remensem, 1751

Salembier, Louis, The Great Schism of the West, London, 1907

At least 10 references to Plaoul here regarding his role in the Politics of the schism

Sullivan, Thomas, "Pierre Plaoul," in Parisian Licentiates in Theology, AD 1373-1500. A Biographical Register. Volume II: The Secular Clergy, (Leiden, 2011), 433-437

Swanson, R. N, Universities, academics and the Great Schism, Cambridge, 2002

Valois, Noël, La France et le grand schisme d'Occident, 1901

The authoritative history of the great schism. Contain information relevant to the political life of Peter Plaoul

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Valois, Noël, La France et le grand schisme d'Occident, 1902

Vincke, Johannes, Briefe zum Pisaner Konzil, Bonn, 1940

Witt, Jeffrey, "Peter Plaoul and Intuitive Knowledge," in Acts of the Nijmegen SIEPM Colloquium 2009, eds. Russell Friedman, Monica Calma, and Paul Bakker, (Nigmegen, forthcoming),